01 Concept of Myanmar
Myanmar officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and formerly known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and People’s Republic of China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876?km (3,651?mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930?km (1,200?mi) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometers(261,228 square miles) in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city and former capital is Yangon (Rangoon). Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.
02 Geography of Myanmar
Myanmar has a total area of 678,500 square kilometers (262,000sqmi). It lies between latitudes 9˚ and 29 ˚ N, and longitudes 92 ˚ and 102 ˚ E. As of February 2011, Myanmar consisted of 14 states and regions, 67 districts, 330 townships, 64 sub-townships, 377 towns, 2,914 Wards, 14,220 village tracts and 68,290 villages. Myanmar is bordered in the northwest by the Chittgong Division of Bangladesh and the Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh states of India. Its north and northeast border is with the Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan province for a Sino-Myanmar border total of 2,185km (1,358mi). It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Myanmar has 1,930km (1,200mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter. In the north, the Hengduan Mountains form the border with China. Hkakabo Razi, located in Kachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 meters
(19,295ft), is the highest point in Myanmar. Many mountain ranges, such as the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, the Shan Hills and the Tenasserim Hills exist within Myanmar, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas. The mountain chains divide Myanmar's three river systems, which are the Irrawaddy, Salween(Thanlwin), and the Sittaung river. The Irrawaddy River, Myanmar's longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometers (1,348mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban. Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains. The majority of Myanmar's population lives in the Irrawaddy valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.
03 Administrative of Myanmar
Myanmar is divided into seven states and seven regions, formerly called divisions. Regions are predominantly Bamar(that is, mainly
inhabited by the dominant ethnic group). States, in essence, are regions that are home to particular ethnic minorities. The
administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages.
Below are the number of districts, townships, cities/towns, wards, village groups and villages in each divisions and states of Myanmar
as of 31 December 2001.
04 Climate and Environment of Myanmar
Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the
Equator. It lies in the Monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions
receiving over 5,000mm (196.9in) of rain annually. Annual Rainfall in
the delta region is approximately 2,500mm (98.4in), while average
annual rainfall in the Dry Zone in central Myanmar is less than
1,000mm (39.4in). The Northern regions of Myanmar are the coolest,
with average temperatures of 21°C (70°F). Coastal and delta regions
have an average maximum temperature of 32°C (89.6°F).
Myanmar continues to perform badly in the global Environmental
Performance Index (EPI) with an overall
ranking of 153 out of 180
countries in 2016; among the worst in the South Asian region, only
ahead of Bangladesh and Afghanistan. The EPI was established in 2001
by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well
individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations'
Sustainable Development Goals. The environmental areas where
Myanmar performs worst (ie. highest ranking) are Air quality (174),
health impacts of environmental issues (143) and Biodiversity and
habitat (142). Myanmar performs best (ie. lowest ranking) in
environmental impacts of fisheries (21), but with declining fish stocks.
Despite several issues, Myanmar also ranks 64 and scores very good
(ie. a high percentage of 93.73%) in environmental effects of the
agricultural industry because of an excellent management of the
05 Economy of Myanmar
06 Economy of Myanmar
Myanmar is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation.
The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology hinders Myanmar's economy, although recent reforms and
developments carried out by the new government, in collaboration with foreign countries and organizations aim to make this a
thing of the past. Myanmar lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Thai border (where most illegal drugs
are exported) and along the Irrawaddy River. Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late
19th century. Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities. In 2010?2011, Bangladesh exported products worth $9.65
million to Myanmar against its import of $179 million. The annual import of medicine and medical equipment to Myanmar during
the 2000s was 160 million USD. In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for
economic benefit. Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and
trade sanctions on Myanmar. The United States and European Union eased most of their sanctions in 2012. Foreign investment
comes primarily from China, Singapore, the Philippines, South Korea, India, and Thailand.
The major agricultural product is rice, which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of
total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute 52 modern rice
varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987
and to 19?million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 percent of
the irrigated areas. In 2008 rice production was estimated at 50 million tons.
Myanmar produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires, pearls and jade. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's
rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country's
gems. Myanmar's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200?km (120?mi) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare
pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires. Many US and European jewellery companies, including Bulgari, Tiffany and Cartier,
refuse to import these stones based on reports of deplorable working conditions in the mines. Human Rights Watch has
encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the
ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run. The government of Myanmar controls the gem
trade by direct ownership or by joint ventures with private owners of mines. Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles,
wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas. Myanmar Engineering society has identified at least 39
locations capable of geothermal power production and some of these hydrothermal reservoirs lie quite close to Yangon which is a
significant underutilized resource for electrical production.